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Oak

The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of tree in the genus Quercus. The genus is native to the northern hemisphere, and includes deciduous and evergreen species extending from cold latitudes to tropical Asia. 

The genus is divided into a number of subgenera, or sections, which include: 

Cerris, the Turkey oak and its relatives of West Asia 
Suber, allied to cork oak of southern Europe 
Robur, allied to the common oak of northern Europe 
Leucobalanus, the white oaks of North America 
Erythrobalanus, the red oaks of North America 
The white oaks are further subdivided into the chestnut oaks and the rest of the white oaks, while the red oaks are further subdivided into the live oaks and the rest of the red oaks. 

A hardwood tree, oak is used commonly in furniture and flooring. The bark of the Quercus suber, or cork oak, is used to produce wine stoppers (corks). Some European and American oak species are used to make barrels where wine and other spirits are aged; the barrels contribute to the taste. This species grows in the Mediterranean Sea region, with Portugal, Spain, Algeria and Morocco producing most of the world's supply. 

Of the North American oaks, the most prized of the red oak group for lumber, all of which is marketed as red oak regardless of the species of origin, is that of the northern red oak, Quercus rubra (aka Quercus borealis). The standard for the lumber of the white oak group, all of which is marketed as white oak, is the white oak, Quercus alba. White oak is often used for the construction of barrels for aging wine. 

Some species of oak found in North America include: 

Quercus agrifolia - Coast live oak 
Quercus alba - White oak 
Quercus arizonica - Arizona white oak 
Quercus bicolor - Swamp white oak 
Quercus chrysolepis - Canyon live oak 
Quercus coccinea - Scarlet oak 
Quercus douglasii - Blue oak 
Quercus ellipsoidalis - Northern pin oak 
Quercus emoryi - Emory oak 
Quercus falcata - Spanish oak, aka southern red oak 
Quercus gambelii - Gambel oak 
Quercus garryana - Oregon white oak 
Quercus grisea - Gray oak 
Quercus havardii - Sand shinnery oak 
Quercus incana - Bluejack oak 
Quercus kelloggii - California black oak 
Quercus laevis - Turkey oak 
Quercus laurifolia - Laurel oak 
Quercus lobata - Valley oak 
Quercus lyrata - Overcup oak 
Quercus macrocarpa - Bur oak 
Quercus marilandica - Blackjack oak 
Quercus michauxii - Swamp chestnut oak 
Quercus muehlenbergii - Chinkapin oak 
Quercus nigra - Water oak 
Quercus oblongifolia - Mexican blue oak 
Quercus palustris - Pin oak 
Quercus phellos - Willow oak 
Quercus prinus - Chestnut oak 
Quercus pungens - Sandpaper oak 
Quercus rubra - Northern red oak 
Quercus shumardii - Shumard oak 
Quercus stellata - Post oak 
Quercus turbinella - Shrub live oak 
Quercus velutina - Black oak 
Quercus virginiana - Live oak 
Quercus wislizenii - Interior live oak 

Old World species of oak include: 

Quercus acutissima 
Quercus canariensis - Algerian oak or Canary oak 
Quercus castaneifolia - Chestnut oak or chestnut leafed oak 
Quercus cerris - Turkey oak 
Quercus coccifera - Kermes oak 
Quercus dentata - Daimio oak 
Quercus faginea - Portuguese oak 
Quercus frainetto - Hungarian oak 
Quercus glauca 
Quercus ilex - Holm oak or evergreen oak 
Quercus infectoria 
Quercus libani - Lebanon oak 
Quercus macranthera 
Quercus mongolica - Mongolian oak 
Quercus petrea - Sessile oak 
Quercus pontica - Armenian oak 
Quercus robur - pedunculate oak, Common oak (British name), English oak (American name), or truffle oak. 
Quercus suber - Cork oak 
Quercus trojana - Macedonian oak 
Quercus x turnerii - Turner's oak 


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